Differentiating Patriotism and Nationalism: Influence of Valence in Primes
Individuals’ feelings of patriotism and nationalism may rise and fall with events that are broadcasted through media outlets or when elected political officials in times of war use phrases like, “you’re either with us or you’re with the terrorists,” or refer to other countries as “the dark side”. The differential effects of these phrases are important, as feelings of patriotism and nationalism may be influenced by political news and/or broadcasted traumatic events. The current study examined to what extent priming influences nationalistic based attitudes such as patriotism, nationalism, xenophobia, and military approval. Specifically, the current study examined the influence of priming through political quotes that reference the in-group (i.e., America) versus the out-group (i.e., other countries).
Keywords: Priming, Patriotism, Nationalism, Xenophobia
Althaus S. L. & Coe K. (2011). Priming patriots: Social identity processes and the dynamics of public support for war. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 75, 65-88
Ayub, N., & Jehn, K. A. (2006). National diversity and conflict in multinational workgroups: The moderating effect of nationalism. International Journal of Conflict Management, 17(3), 181-202.
Bar-Tal, D. (1993). Patriotism as fundamental beliefs of group members. Politics & The Individual, 3(2), 45-62.
Citrin, J., Wong C., & Duff B. (2001). “The meaning of American national identity.” In R. D. Ashmore, L. Jussim, and D. Wilder. (Eds.). Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction (pp. 71-100). New York: Oxford University Press.
Doise, W. (1988). Individual and social identities in intergroup relations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 99–111.
Duckitt, J. (1989). Authoritarianism and group identification. A new view of an old construct. Political Psychology, 10, 63-84.
Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J. M., & Harquail, C. V. (1994). Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J. M., & Harquail, C. V. 1994. Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 239–263.
Ferguson, L. W. (1942). The isolation and measurement of nationalism. Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 215-228.
Furia, P. (2002). Democracy, liberalism, and war: rethinking the democratic peace debate. International Affairs, 78(2), 367-368.
Kelman, H. C. (1997). Nationalism, patriotism, and national identity: Social-psychological dimensions. In D. Bar-Tal & E. Staub (Eds.), Patriotism in the life of individuals and nations (pp. 165-189), Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Kemmelmeier, M. & Winter, D. G. (2008). Sowing patriotism but reaping nationalism. Consequences of exposure to the American flag, Political Psychology, 29, 859-879.
Kosterman R. & Feshbach S., (1989). Toward a measure of patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Political Psychology, 10, 257-274.
Luellen, T. B. & Wann, D. L. (2010). Rival salience and sport team identification. Sports Marketing Quarterly, 19(2), 97-105.
Li, Q., & Brewer, M. B. (2004). What does it mean to be an American? Patriotism, nationalism, and American identity after 9/11. Political Psychology, 25(5), 727-739.
Marques, J. M., & Paez, D. (1994). The ‘black sheep effect’: Social categorization, rejection of ingroup deviates, and perception of group variability. European Review of Social Psychology, 5, 37-68.
Murphy, S. T., & Zajonc, R. B. (1993). Affect, cognition, and awareness: affective priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(5), 723-739.
Schmidt, F. L., Hunter, J. E., & Raju, N. S. (1988). Validity generalization and situational specificity: A second look at the 75% rule and Fisher's z transformation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 31(4), 665-672.
Sparrow, B., & Wegner, D. M. (2006). Unpriming: the deactivation of thoughts through expression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(6), 1009-1019.
Stagner, R. (1940). A correlational analysis of nationalistic opinions. Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 197-212.
Tesler, M. (2008). Patriot priming in presidential elections: When and why American patriotism matters in voting for president. Freeman, 2004(2) 1-42.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. 1986. The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relation (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Van Der Veer, K., Ommundsen, R., Yakushko, O., Higler, L., Woelders, S., & Hagen, K. (2013) Psychometrically and qualitatively validating a cross-national cumulative measure of fear-base xenophobia. Quality & Quantity: International Journal
of Methodology, 47(3), 1429-1444.
Van Evera, S. (1994). Hypotheses on nationalism and war. International Security, 18(4), 5-39.
Vázquez, C., Pérez-Sales, P., & Hervás, G. (2008). Positive effects of terrorism and posttraumatic growth: An individual and community perspective. Trauma, recovery, and growth: Positive psychological perspectives on posttraumatic stress, 63-91.
Wann, D. L. (2006). The causes and consequences of sport team identification. In A.A. Raney & J. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of Sports and Media (pp. 331-352). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Weinreich, P. 1986. The operationalism of identity theory in racial and ethnic relations. In J. Rex (Ed.), Theories of race and ethnic relations: Comparative ethnic and race relations (pp. 299–320). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 The New School Psychology Bulletin
© The New School Psychology Bulletin | email@example.com