Personality and Obese Body Mass Index
AbstractThis study investigated the relationship between obese range Body Mass Index (BMI) and personality variables as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). The sample consisted of 129 obese participants referred for preoperative psychological evaluation. Each completed an MMPI-2 and clinical interview. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the contribution of personality variables to the prediction of variance in obese range BMI. Age, Scale 9 (Hypomania), and Scale 4 (Psychopathic Deviate) emerged as statistically significant predictors of BMI. Each predicted 7.8%, 6.4%, and 3.1% of the variance of participant BMI, respectively, with a combined prediction power of 17.3%. F-scores for the final, best fit model, with age on Level 1 and Scale 9 and Scale 4 on Level 2, were statistically significant (p<.0009). Results suggest severely obese bariatric surgery candidates may be more prone to impulsivity, irritability, and instability. However, limited predictive power of MMPI-2 scales indicates restricted clinical utility.
Bond, D. S., Phelan, S., Leahey, T.M., Hill, J. O., & Wing, R. R. (2009). Weight-loss maintenance in successful weight losers: surgical vs non-surgical methods. International Journal of Obesity, 33, 173-180.
Breznikar, B., & Dinevski, D. (2009). Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: Pre-operative assessment, surgical techniques and post-operating monitoring. The Journal of International Medical Research, 37(5), 1632-1645.
Butcher, J. N., & Williams, C. L. (2000). Essentials of MMPI-2 and MMPI-a interpretation (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Byrne, S., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. (2003) Weight maintenance and relapse in obesity: A qualitative study. International Journal of Obesity, 27, 955-962.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Obesity and overweight: Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/NCCDPHP/dnpa/obesity/
Crumpton, E., Wine, D. B., & Groot, H. (1966). MMPI profiles of obese men and six other diagnostic categories. Psychological Reports, 19(3), 1110.
Davis, C., Levitan, R. D., Carter, J., Kaplan, A. S., Reid, C., Curtis, C., Patte, K., & Kennedy, J.L. (2008). Personality and eating behaviors: A case-control study of binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41, 243-250.
Davis, M. M., Slish, K., Chao, C., & Cabana, M. D. (2006) National trends in bariatric surgery, 1996-2002. Archives of Surgery, 141, 71-74.
Finch, E. A., Linde, J. A., Jeffery, R. W., Rothman, A. J., & King, C. M. (2005). The effects of outcome expectations and satisfaction on weight loss and maintenance: Correlational and experimental analyses - A randomized trial. Health Psychology, 24(6), 608-616.
Flegal, K. M., Graubard, B. I., Williamson, D. F., & Gail, M. H. (2005). Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(15), 1861-1867.
Graham, J. R. (2006) MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Gregg, E. W., Gerzoff, R. B., Thompson, T. J., & Williamson, D. F. (2003) Intentional weight loss and death in overweight and obese U.S. adults 35 years of age and older. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138(5), 383-389.
Hartigan, K. J., Baker-Strauch, D., & Morris, G. W. (1982). Perceptions of the causes of obesity and responsiveness to treatment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(5), 478-485.
Herpertz, S., Kielmann, R., Wolf, A. M., Langkafel, M., Senf, W., & Heberbrand, J. (2003). Does obesity surgery improve psychosocial functioning? A systematic review. International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1300-1314.
Johnson, S. F., Swenson, W. M., & Gastineau, C. F. (1976). Personality characteristics in obesity: Relation of MMPI profile and age of onset of obesity to success in weight reduction. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 29, 626-632.
Kim, K. H., Bursac, Z., DiLillo, V., White, D. B., & West, D. S. (2009). Stress, race, body weight. Health Psychology, 28(1), 131-135.
Kinder, B. N., Walfish, S., Young, M. S., & Fairweather, A. (2008). MMPI-2 profiles of bariatric surgery patients: A replication and extension. Obesity Surgery, 18, 1170-1179.
Kolotkin, R. L., Revis, E. S., Kirkley, B. G., & Janick, L. (1987). Binge eating in obesity: associated MMPI characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(6), 872-876.
Latner, J. D., Stunkard, A. J., Wilson, G. T., Jackson, M. L., Zelitch, D. S., & Labouvie, E. (2000). Effective long-term treatment of obesity: a continuing care model. International Journal of Obesity, 24(7), 893-898.
Maddi, S. R., Fox, S. R., Khoshaba, D. M., Harvey, R. H., Lu, J. L., & Persico, M. (2001). Reduction in psychopathology following bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. Obesity Surgery, 11(6), 680-685.
Maddi, S. R., Khoshaba, D. M., Persico, M., Bleecker, F., & VanArsdall, G. (1997). Psychosocial correlates of psychopathology in a national sample of morbidly obese. Obesity Surgery, 7, 397-404.
Maggard, M. A., Shugarman, L. R., Suttorp, M., Maglione, M., Sugerman, H. J., Livingston, E. H., Nguyen, N. T., Li, Z., Mojica, W. A., Hilton, L., Rhodes, S., Morton, S. C., & Shekelle, P. G. (2005). Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(7), 547-559.
Neovis, M., Sundstron, J., & Rasmussen, F. (2009). Combined effects of overweight and smoking in late adolescence on subsequent mortality: nationwide cohort study. BritishMedical Journal, 338:b496.
Nichols, D. S. (2001). Essentials of MMPI-2 assessment. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Olshansky, S. J., Passaro, D. J., Hershow, R. C., Layden, J., Carnes, B. A., Brody, J., Hayflick, L., Butler, R. N., Allison, D. B., & Ludwig, D. S. (2005). A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(11), 1138-1145.
Padwal, R. S., Li, S. K., & Lau, D. C. (2003). Long-term pharmacotherapy for overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Internal Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27(12), 1437-1446.
Prather, R. C., & Williamson, D. A. (1988). Psychopathology associated with bulimia, binge eating, and obesity. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7(2), 177-184.
Ruchinskas, R. A., Combs, C. J., Riley, K. C., & Broshek, D. K. (2006). Defensive responding on the MMPI-2 in pre-surgical candidates. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 13, 441-445.
Ryden, A., Sullivan, M., Torgerson, J. S., Karlsson, J., Lindroos, A. K., & Taft, C. (2003). Severe obesity and personality: a comparative controlled study of personality traits. International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1534-1540.
Ryden, A., Sullivan, M., Torgerson, J. S., Karlsson, J., Lindroos, A-K., & Taft, C. (2004). A comparative study of personality in severe obesity: A 2 year follow-up after intervention. International Journal of Obesity, 28, 1485-1493.
Saris, W. H. M. (2001). Very-low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss. Obesity Research, 9, 295-301.
Strine, T. W., Mokdad, A. H., Dube, S. R., Balluz, L. S., Gonzalez, O., Berry, J. T., Manderscheid, R., & Kroenke, K. (2008). The association of depression and anxiety with obesity and unhealthy behaviors among community-dwelling US adults. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(2), 127-137.
Sullivan, S., Cloninger, C. R., Przybeck, T. R., & Klein, S. (2007). Personality characteristics in obesity and relationship with successful weight loss. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 669-674.
Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Tsushima, W. T., Bridenstine, M.P., & Balfour, J.F. (2004). MMPI-2 scores in the outcome prediction of gastric bypass surgery. Obesity Surgery, 14, 528-532.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Calculate your bmi. Retrived from http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Vardi, P. & Pinhas-Hamiel, O. (2000). The young hunter hypothesis: Age-related weight gain - A tribute to the thrifty theories. Medical Hypotheses, 55(6), 521-523.
World Health Organization. (2011). Obesity and overweight. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en/
Wygant, D. B., Boutacoff, L. I., Arbisi, P. A., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Kelly, P. H., & Rupp, W. M. (2007). Examination of the MMPI-2 restructured clinic (rc) scales in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 14, 197-205.
Copyright (c) 2017 The New School Psychology Bulletin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.